So just why is Africa poor?

Why is Africa so poor? You asked Google – here’s the answer
Eliza Anyangwe

As you might have guessed, it’s tax avoidance, private companies and slavery. This is The Guardian after all.

The actual answer is “Because they’ve not had an industrial revolution yet.”

The only thing we know of that makes the people rich is an industrial revolution. In the absence of one the people will be poor.

QED.

67 comments on “So just why is Africa poor?

  1. That just pushes the question back one step. Why hasn’t Africa had an Industrial Revolution?

    Especially once the West had invented everything slightly more complex than a magnetic compass. They know how to do it. They don’t need to invent anything. They just have to copy or buy it off the shelf.

    So ultimately the answer is because some mix of factors we do not know or yet understand but including culture, geography, diseases, indigenous species – and, yes, genetics – has meant they have ended up where they are. With no particular sign they are going anywhere else any time soon.

    In fact it is worse than this because there is no sign that they can go anywhere else. What economic growth Africa has is the result of importing more competent, higher IQ, educated people from South Africa in the case of Botswana or China for most of the rest of Africa.

  2. Tim, that risks being trivial. The more interesting question is why not?

    At the risk of sounding disgustingly racist, it seems that in general, africans are less successful in positions of leadership than other colours.

    I imagine this is a cultural problem deriving from tribalism and big-man syndrome, and until a solution is found, they are doomed to failure.

    Oddly enough, the spread of christian values in the colonial period probably started to do some good, but they’re not fashionable anymore, and marxism fits much more neatly into the tribalistic culture, hence its great “success”.

  3. Only The Guardian could look at a continent of strong men dictators and decide that what it needs is more tax revenue for the government and less power of private organisations

  4. Endemic corruption and tribalism. You can do what you like to anyone not in your group in order for your lot to get ahead.

  5. “According to Honest Accounts 2017”

    That sounds like the sort of organisation that would employ Alex Cobham as it’s CEO.

  6. It does actually use the sort of reports that Maya Forstater rails about as its evidence base, yes.

  7. Gunker – exactly what I was going to say. Corruption prevents good people and ideas progressing. Tribalism within a country creates division and prevents the ‘demos’ concept from delivering the collective give-and-take benefits of democracy. I work with a lot of Africans in a westernised London company.

    Until the countries in Africa are better aligned to the tribes then it will never work. Unfortunately we all know how that realignment plays out in reality. It is already happening in the north with splits between Muslim and Christian regions (Somalia, Sudan, Nigeria coming soon).

  8. I have to say I am impressed by her ability to blame us for the inexperience of African officials at things like the Paris Climate talks.

    They throw the West out and install some bizarre jokes as leaders and yet somehow it is our fault. Fifty years after independence, they still lack experience and it is still our fault.

  9. This book
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Why_Nations_Fail
    Looks at this in some detail, the conclusion being that in England after the Glorious revolution there was a broad law based Government which enabled creative destruction to take place and economic growth.
    It is a really good read and cannot be summarized in a few lines

  10. More fundamental than an industrial revolution is the absence of the Rule of Law. Which leads to corruption and encourages violence and tribalism. Add in low sub-saharan IQs and some genetic proclivities to extreme violence, and you have a continent with millions of footloose losers who want to colonise to Europe…

  11. Throw into an already poisonous mix the poison rot that is socialism and the job is done.

    Hell, if buoyancy was under political control Africa would have sunk beneath the waves long ago–like a Bizarro* Atlantis.

    *TM DC Comics.

  12. Theophrastus – “More fundamental than an industrial revolution is the absence of the Rule of Law. Which leads to corruption and encourages violence and tribalism.”

    Botswana has the rule of law. It has had democratic elections for a very long time. It is about as corrupt as Portugal or South Korea – that last is important because it was about as poor as South Korea in 1966 when Botswana became independent and South Korea’s export-led reforms began. It ranks about 30th in the world for corruption so that is pretty good.

    It does not have a problem with tribalism because everyone is from the same tribe. It has no history of violence.

    It has no debt. It has been fiscally responsible. Very good government on the whole actually. Britain should be so lucky to have been ruled as they have since 1966.

    So it ought to be rich. And on average it does not do too badly. It is about as rich as Mexico. On average. Except that three quarters of its exports are diamonds and nickel. That is, White South Africans produce most of them.

    Meanwhile 80% of the population is involved in agriculture even though it only produces half its food needs and together they produce 3% of GDP. That is, the African population is pretty much as poor as it always has been and to be honest is barely out of the stone age.

  13. Morocco is doing reasonably well, and not just by African standards. GDP growth is well in excess of population growth. Some 40% of the labour force still work in agriculture, but that number is falling. Egypt had been doing well too, until things started kicking off a few years ago.

    Sub-Saharan Africa is a different beast, of course.

  14. It’s a mystery. Why is Germany so rich, and Italy so middling? It’s almost like it’s down to the people and their culture.

  15. I actually think if I were African I would be more than slightly demeaned by the repeated insistence that if only whitey wasn’t so dastardly a century ago I could have made something of my life. But blaming others for your troubles is so seductive.

  16. SMFS

    Botswana is doing well enough – and growing very rapidly – for its people to wish to remain there. Unlike much of sub-saharan Africa, Botswana is not exporting rapists and parasites to Europe.

  17. @Interested
    “It’s a mystery. Why is Germany so rich, and Italy so middling? It’s almost like it’s down to the people and their culture.”
    If that were the case East and West Germany would have had the same wealth.
    It is more to do with the Government.

  18. West and East Germany would have had the same wealth.

    Save that one was heavily afflicted by socialism and the other much more mildly.

    Altho’ all socialism leads to disaster in the end.

  19. The push factor of enclosure as well as the pull factor of industrialisation and urbanisation is missing, since mad regimes want to encourage peasant subsistence farming for reasons of clientism.

  20. There are two other arguments that should probably be lobbed in as well – one is that the legacy of colonial carve-ups has inherently produced unstable states with artificial borders, leading to infighting and a massive waste of energy – this is what borders would look like on a traditional/ethnic/tribal basis

    https://pbs.twimg.com/media/CoP0Xm4UsAAQYVk.jpg

    The second is the lack of free trade between countries – 15 of the 47 African countries are landlocked and rely on neighbours for access to international markets (unless by air). The tariffs, disputes and controls between markets really do stifle economic development

  21. Regarding Africa, I can thoroughly recommend The State of Africa which shows that so many of that blighted contintents’ problems are rooted in the post-independence governments immediately adopting Soviet economic and political practices. Ghana is one that particularly suffered in this regard under a blithering idiot who is still revered today.

  22. @Mr Ecks
    “West and East Germany would have had the same wealth.

    Save that one was heavily afflicted by socialism and the other much more mildly.”
    So bad Governments make countries poor – maybe that is the problem in Africa as well.

  23. @Interested
    “It’s a mystery. Why is Germany so rich, and Italy so middling? It’s almost like it’s down to the people and their culture.”

    It is a mystery. As a Brit I’m a member of a complex web of other Brits, plus various Northern Europeans, who act as a sort of mutual aid society. It extends throughout the ex-pats down here, up through France & ties in with the UK. There’s not much can’t be accomplished through mates, mates of mates & mates3. A lot of the time, it doesn’t even require money. People do favours which are repaid with favours. Not necessarily returned to the original favour giver. It goes round & generally balances.
    I’ve tried explaining this to the Spanish & it’s beyond them. They won’t do anything unless you pay them. Often not even after you’ve paid them. The mutual trust circle that us ex-pats enjoy is non existent.
    As a result, I’d say we’re about a 100% more efficient than the Spanish. Want something done & it gets done. No probs. Same with the Spanish can entail hours, days or weeks of broken promises & failure to perform. They seem to think nothing of taking your money without the slightest intention of providing anything in return. Even seems surprised when you don’t go along with the scam. Totally mystified when they’re on the receiving end of the sort of corrective response northerners are inclined to hand out.
    And this attitude is much, much more common amongst Spain’s middle classes. Working José & Maria are generally fairly straight people. Further up the tree you go, worse it gets.
    Not surprising the country’s largely dysfunctional
    But why?.

  24. “Tribalism within a country creates division and prevents the ‘demos’ concept from delivering the collective give-and-take benefits of democracy.”

    Hmmm . . . Hillary Clinton et al.

  25. @SMFS
    Fifty years after independence, they still lack experience and it is still our fault.

    It’s the Gladrag. So every single thing that’s wrong with the world is the fault of:
    a) the English; and if not
    b) the British; and if not
    c) the Americans; and if not
    d) the white race.

    Simples

  26. Theophrastus – “Botswana is doing well enough – and growing very rapidly – for its people to wish to remain there. Unlike much of sub-saharan Africa, Botswana is not exporting rapists and parasites to Europe.”

    That misses the point. The people of Botswana are not doing so well. The White people brought in to run the mines and the various government parasites that live off them are doing fine. 80% of the population produces such 3% of the GDP.

    It is not so much they wish the remain there They are still too poor and too ignorant to know any better. The people of Malawi are not flooding the UK. Nor the people of Equatorial Guinea. You let in one, you let in twelve. You let in twelve, you let in a gross. We have let in a lot of Nigerians and so get even more. People from Malawi and Botswana less so.

  27. Tribalism is more than just the large tribes. It extends the whole way down African society, to extended family who have a “claim” on any good fortune coming your way. When I was at university I recall an investigation into why students with full bursaries were short of cash to the extent they were unable to buy books. The conclusion was that as soon as Johnny got his scholarship the entire family wanted in and it was seen as his duty to support the aunts and uncles even to the detriment of his studies.

  28. As somebody who has managed a department of Nigerian workers, I can confirm what gunker says above is true. In Africa, if one of the family gets a job he’s expected to provide handouts to a dozen or so fit male relatives who laze about all day.

  29. Flatcap Army – “one is that the legacy of colonial carve-ups has inherently produced unstable states with artificial borders, leading to infighting and a massive waste of energy”

    As opposed to what? France’s natural, logical, God given borders? All borders are artificial results of political carve ups. With the exception of Britain’s borders perhaps but even then there is Northern Ireland.

    “The second is the lack of free trade between countries – 15 of the 47 African countries are landlocked and rely on neighbours for access to international markets (unless by air). The tariffs, disputes and controls between markets really do stifle economic development”

    So they should be happy about colonialism. If not for the West creating larger states 615 African states would be land locked.

    And that trade thing has to do with African socialism again.

  30. Low average IQs in sub-Saharan Africa are a symptom not a cause. Flynn estimates that the average IQ in the USA in 1900 was 67 on today’s scale.

  31. Social Justice Warrior – “Low average IQs in sub-Saharan Africa are a symptom not a cause. Flynn estimates that the average IQ in the USA in 1900 was 67 on today’s scale”

    He estimates. I am not sure I believe in Flynn’s work but let’s assume it is true. America had a gentry class. They had families of wealth. More families of comfortably modest means. In Britain those people often came from the Church of England – ensuring that well fed, relatively-disease-free educated people were distributed across the country.

    Africa has had African Socialism. So their upper class has been largely destroyed. Their average really is an average.

    It will take generations before a well-fed, relatively-disease-free gentry class emerges in Africa. With luck they will look at reading with reverence. Then Africa might have a chance.

  32. Harry Powell,

    > The push factor of enclosure … is missing since mad regimes want to encourage peasant subsistence farming for reasons of clientism.

    Yes, although I suggest that it’s not the kind of clientism we see in the UK. In Africa the currency is sex. Having lots of poor women scrabbling about in the fields means having lots of available mistresses. Since it’s the women who do all the work and provide for the children, there are no negative consequences for a man sleeping around.

    I present Modern Drunkard: Soused Africa:

    Women do almost all the daily work in southern Africa: cooking, finding food, raising children, and tidying up around the hut, which leaves men free to spend the day pursuing more amiable interests, like drinking until they can barely stand or form sentences.

    Why don’t the menfolk work to provide for their children? Because they aren’t sure that the children are theirs. Cuckoldry isn’t just rife in sub-Saharan Africa, it’s ingrained into their culture. Big Man politics is one reflection of that; the HIV epidemic is another.

  33. SMFS,

    > As opposed to what? France’s natural, logical, God given borders?

    The Pyrennees, the Alps, the Vosges (later the Rhine)? Granted there’s no natural border to the north, but that’s the exception, not the rule. Much of European history is about invading armies being stopped by natural barriers, from Hannibal’s elephants in the Alps to the Nazis struggling with Russian winters.

    Africa has plenty of natural boundaries, but they haven’t had a chance to properly slug it out and to align their borders with those boundaries.

  34. I don’t know about IQs, but I’ve found the expats who have lived in Africa are in near-universal agreement that the displays of incompetence and rank stupidity one sees on a daily basis defy description. It really does need to be seem to be believed. Even the Malaysians and Indonesians I know weren’t prepared for African levels of raw stupidity.

  35. Why don’t the menfolk work to provide for their children?

    Low paternal investment in children is probably the default state of humanity, since you don’t see male chimps or gorillas doing anything much for their young. And in sub saharan Africa, it’s possible for a women to support their kids by farming themselves. Tropical disease, rather than availability of food has been the primary factor limiting human population growth.

    Monogamy, paternal certainty and high paternal investment in children are behaviors that evolved after humans left Africa, since it’s very difficult for a woman to support herself and her kids by herself by farming in a temperate region like Europe or northeast Asia.

  36. JerryC – “Monogamy, paternal certainty and high paternal investment in children are behaviors that evolved after humans left Africa, since it’s very difficult for a woman to support herself and her kids by herself by farming in a temperate region like Europe or northeast Asia.”

    Specifically, African farming mostly involves a pointed stick. A hoe if we are being polite. Women can use it. As women have the most interest in seeing their children fed, they do most of the poking in the ground.

    Outside of Africa, people had viable draught animals. They invented the plough. The plough is heavy and beyond most women’s strength. So ploughs mean agriculture is dominated by men. I suspect you could use a hoe in Europe and get by. But the plough is vastly more productive. So it made sense for everyone to encourage men to work in the fields.

    The pay off for men in exchange for that was paternal certainty. Women made sure that their men were convinced the children they were working hard to support were theirs. Hence stronger marriages.

    Everywhere else is less of a sh!thole than Africa because in Africa men are not expected to work hard to support their families. The way that almost everyone in Eurasia makes sure they get laid is to prove they are good providers. That works in Africa but so does being a good talker or being handsome or anything else that might catch a girl’s eye – and the latter involves a lot less work.

  37. “Low average IQs in sub-Saharan Africa are a symptom not a cause.”

    You can get the negro out of Africa, but you can’t get Africa out of the negro. Generally, blacks sink to the bottom of any society they join. Black IQ levels remain below average in most non-African countries – particularly in the US, where $trillions have been spent on trying to raise the educational achievement of blacks. Meanwhile, show me a black who has some intellectual achievement to his or her name, and I’ll wager s/he has some white ancestors. Check through this list, for example:
    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_African-American_inventors_and_scientists

  38. SMFS

    “That misses the point. The people of Botswana are not doing so well. The White people brought in to run the mines and the various government parasites that live off them are doing fine. 80% of the population produces such 3% of the GDP.”

    Perhaps, but, having been to Botswana, I’d say healthcare and education there are superior to the provision in Zambia, (much of) South Africa, The Gambia or Senegal. And also that Botswanans are more contented.

  39. Socialism is tribal economics.
    – Guy Herbert

    from Samizdata

    And it explains a lot, including the comments here about how a successful tribal hunter is expected to share the meat. This is so even today when the hunt is the job and the meat is the pay.

    This custom is also incredibly common here in Canada among our natives. No sane landlord ever rents to aboriginals, even obviously ‘modern’, educated and hard working ones. The risk of finding the place populated with dozens of less modern relatives is too large. Our aboriginals seem to behave almost exactly like African blacks.

    This ancient internal problem of tribalism makes it difficult for the tribe to succeed. That is a statistical arguement not an arithmetic one. There are plenty of ‘modern’ aboriginals and blacks, but as Derbyshire points out, one can’t go too far dragging a chain of 50 incompetent relatives.

    Bad enough we whites and Asians have to a drag a chain of 5 or 10 idiot relatives, from drunken brothers in law to malingering drug taking feckless nephews.

    50 vs 5 or 10, or whatever the numbers are, it might be 5 vs 2, is one of the real problems.

  40. @Theophrastus
    ” Black IQ levels remain below average in most non-African countries – particularly in the US, where $trillions have been spent on trying to raise the educational achievement of blacks.”
    But it was spent badly by Democrats the amount you spend is not a guarantee of success – look at many UK Government projects.

  41. @ Theophrastus
    Your list is only of African-Americans, not of blacks as a whole and black slaves were bred for strength, not intelligence (noticeable intelligence could be fatal as in the tall poppy syndrome invented by, inter alia, Tarquinius Superbus).
    Apart from the African-Africans I knew at Oxford, I could cite Nelson Mandela, Gatsha Buthelezi and Desmond Tutu as blacks with notable intellectual achievements and no white ancestry.

  42. It’s complicated. Contrary to advice, you can revise for an IQ test. Maybe whites do and blacks don’t.

    Genetic variation is highest in Africa. Thus we know that man evolved there first. So you would expect IQ to have a fat tailed distribution. Maybe the intelligent ones got the hell out of Dodge.

  43. anon

    “But it was spent badly by Democrats the amount you spend is not a guarantee of success – look at many UK Government projects.”

    Quite so. The money was wasted given the biological raw material.

    john77

    “Apart from the African-Africans I knew at Oxford, I could cite Nelson Mandela, Gatsha Buthelezi and Desmond Tutu as blacks with notable intellectual achievements and no white ancestry.”

    I was making a general point: I’m not saying all blacks are thick… That said, all the blacks I knew at Oxford were quota-fillers. — Mandela wasn’t exactly the sharpest knife in the drawer: he believed in socialism, ffs. Tutu wasn’t that impressive either. Or Buthelezi. Moral or leadership qualities aren’t the same thing as intellectual ability. — When the African Aristotles, Einsteins, Shakespeares, Beethovens, Wittgensteins and Leonardos emerge, I’ll change my mind.

    BiF

    “Genetic variation is highest in Africa. Thus we know that man evolved there first.”

    As it stands, that inference is not valid. More importantly, we don’t “know” that man evolved in Africa first. We believe it, on the basis of the evidence available, and some evidence suggests the contrary. Given that all or most human geneticists are left of centre politically, I keep an open mind about the DNA evidence. Geneticists like Steve Jones seem terrified by the idea that we might not all be African in origin.

  44. I’ve been to Africa a few times.

    I disagree with the “tribal boundaries” theory. Uganda, for example, is fairly ethnically homogeneous, but it’s still a mess.

    What people have said about mandatory sharing is absolutely true. Everyone, men especially, have to share their income with their family. On reason that Africans love informal employment and being wheeler-dealers is that it allows them to hide their income from their family.

    It is also true, especially in the countryside, that women do most of the work. Men hang around a lot. They talk to each other and play pool in lean-to sheds at the side of the road. As others have pointed out, perhaps this reflects their interests.

  45. Theo
    You can keep an open mind and let the wind blow through. Maybe I have a closed mind and it’s rotten as a consequence.

    But if Darwin’s theory is correct then the mutations would be greater in the source population.

    Agreed, the policisation of science is a disaster we are witnessing. Intersting study for futiure generations if (if) they’ve not swallowed the current BS.

  46. Bif

    I understand the theory. I’m mildly sceptical about the observations on the African gene pool, as the people who support the out-of-Africa theory clearly want it to be true – and for non-scientific reasons – which could well be distorting their perceptions and interpretations. My hunch is the theory will eventually go the way of phlogiston and the ether.

    Regarding your “closed mind” , you were ridiculing Aristotle’s Physics here not so long ago, IIRC. I recently noticed that Carlo Rovelli praises Aristotle’s Physics in his book ‘ Reality is not what it seems’, and he’s published an article in a learned journal on the importance of Aristotle’s Physics.

  47. Don’t forget corruption, it’s endemic in Africa and it leaches any prosperity out of the nation.

  48. @ Robert Thorpe
    Uganda is a mess because of Milton Obote.
    King Freddie was a decent guy who wanted his people to be better off (he had enough and he was educated by the British so he wasn’t greedy).
    Obote was a power-hungry socialist thug who eventually got his come-uppance when someone leaked to Idi Amin (one of his appointees) that Obote was going to eliminate him and Amin pre-empted it.
    Years of disaster under Obote and then more years of disaster under Amin – followed by more years of disaster under Obote after he was reimposed following an invasion by Tanzania under his fellow socialist Nyerere. Eventually a rebellion kicked him out and the first free election in decades backed the rebel

  49. @ Theophrastus
    You must be younger than I – we didn’t have quota-fillers. There were allegations about oarsmen getting in on their sporting prowess and the joke about Teddy Hall and rugby players but my college, and most others, chose solely on academic ability (unless we/they were allocated Rhodes Scholars who were selected on academic and other factors – we had one Canadian Rhodes scholar doing a post-grad degree who was a top-class Lacrosse player, whereas Teddy Hall’s Rhodes scholars took undergraduate degrees).
    None of those I’ve named were Albert Einstein – but nor am I – they are just examples that are universally known who are visibly highly intelligent and civilised; my friend John achieved a career in the BBC despite its corporate prejudice against blacks and those more intelligent that the place-holders.
    There are reasons to expect Jews and Japanese to have higher average IQs than the world average – equally they predict that *African-Americans* will have lower IQs, but that should not be extrapolated to Africans.
    I am a strong believer in hereditary – when I was a kid the thing my family had in common was coming top in Maths, despite my father getting a degree in Chenistry and my mother one in French – but achievement requires both hereditary and environment.

  50. @john77
    The problem with trying to define intelligence by reference to Oxford, or any university, is it’s a self referential system. Intelligence is defined by what’s intelligent at Oxford.
    Maybe we should judge by results. A disproportionate number of the country’s politicians were educated at Oxford. Many of them were judged by Oxford to be outstandingly intelligent. Look at the country you have today. is there any evidence what you see is the work of people of above average intelligence. Or even even any intelligence at all, above that of a village idiot.

  51. Theo
    I riidicule Aristotle’s Physhics. I don’t ridicule the people who have proved him wrong. That’s how science works, even if the people who proved him wrong were also wrong. I acknowledge that putting an idea in the public space is an advance, and that you can be shot down for doing it.

    The Out of Africa thesis may not be true. And there are a whole bunch of nutters out there who want to gainsay it. So far they haven’t come up with a credible alternative hypothesis. Out of New Zealand? They seem to be good at the rugger, so must be aboriginals, eh?

    The more you know, the more you know you know nothing.

  52. “Maybe we should judge by results. A disproportionate number of the country’s politicians were educated at Oxford. Many of them were judged by Oxford to be outstandingly intelligent. Look at the country you have today. is there any evidence what you see is the work of people of above average intelligence. Or even even any intelligence at all, above that of a village idiot.”

    It occurs to me that there’s several different sorts of intelligence and the sort of intelligence measured by who gets into Oxford to read PPE is one that apparently doesn’t make you very good at being in charge of things.

    There’s also wisdom, and common sense, neither of which I would consider synonyms for intelligence, though they must be related I guess. It appears that one can be very ‘clever’ but also rather stupid at the same time. The particle physicist who can’t drive boil an egg, that sort of thing.

    Its why I think politicians should be kept away from politics until their 40s at very least. Wisdom and common sense need time to make themselves apparent, whereas intellect is measured at relatively young ages. If all politicians had to make a go of normal life for 20-30 years before they could start climbing the greasy pole we’d have a far better track record to be able to judge their character by.

  53. Time to wheel out Dr Latham’s defence of Aristotelian Physics. In my first year of Physics at Imperial College our lecturer layed put Aristotle’s view of projectiles following a “straight motion” , a “curved motion” an a ” falling motion”. How we laughed. So, straightfaced he told us he would demonstrate an Aristotelian cannon. Out came a balloon and a tennis racket. Behold! A straight motion, a curve, and a fall like a stone. Aristotle’s physics is dominated by friction, Newton’s by momentum. Both are good approximations where the assumptions are valid.

  54. Robert
    OK I was wrong, as usual. Is there a video of this?

    Jim
    The mystery is why we are intelligent at all. Once we got fire and could see vultures, we could have got more meat to supplement our gathering, without the very expensive big heads we have.

  55. @ bif
    I’m not trying to define intelligence by Oxford – it’s just the only handy example that I have got.
    On your second point – Gordon Brown didn’t go to Oxford, so the alternative seems to be even worse.

  56. Africa is poor because the population has a low mean IQ (71), compared to that of Eurasia (100) and East Asia (105).

    [IQs from ‘Race Differences in Intelligence: An Evolutionary Analysis’ by Richard Lynn]

  57. Gamecock,

    African-Americans have guns too. Doesn’t make their society function any better.

  58. There’s the definition of African Socialism which does not help.

    “What is mine I keep, what is yours we share”

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