Amanduh might want to rethink this

Donald Trump won the presidency in no small part through his persistent demagoguery about urban violence, which he appears to believe is the result of our first black president refusing to enact “law and order” policies on communities of color. As with most things Trump believes, this is largely nonsense — overall trends show a precipitous drop in crime over the past two decades or more — but of course violent crime in cities hasn’t been eradicated completely. That has allowed Trump to use the specter of violence to push for an expansion of already draconian and sometimes overtly racist criminal justice policies.

But a paper published in the May edition of the journal Social Science & Medicine, titled “The enduring impact of historical and structural racism on urban violence in Philadelphia,” adds an intriguing piece of evidence to a growing body of research that links the history of racial discrimination in cities to current problems with gun violence. This research suggests that fighting systematic racism is a better solution to urban crime than the heavy-handed policing tactics prescribed by Trump and his supporters.

The researchers, who all work with the Penn Injury Science Center at the University of Pennsylvania, took a look at modern maps of gun-violence hotspots in Philadelphia and compared them to an infamous redlining map of the city produced in 1937 by the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation. What they found was that areas of Philadelphia deemed “red zones” 80 years ago strongly correlate to areas that now have a high concentration of gun violence.

Redlining was the denial of certain services etc to certain districts based upon ethnic composition. The effect was to make sure that the ethnic compositions stayed put where they were. If you can’t get a mortgage, build a bit of equity, then move on up out then you can’t move on up and out.

Hmm.

Now Amanduh is celebrating the finding that historically and predominantly black districts have higher gun violence than non-historically and predominantly black population districts.

You know, if I did that I’m sure I would be called a racist.

85 comments on “Amanduh might want to rethink this

  1. Hmmm….

    (CNN) Chicago marked 2016 as the deadliest year in nearly two decades, data released by the Chicago Police Department shows.

    The city saw a surge in gun violence in 2016: 762 murders, 3,550 shooting incidents, and 4,331 shooting victims, according to a statement released by the department on Sunday.

    The vast majority of victims (and assailants) are black.

    But Trump is racist for wanting to save black lives. ¯\_(ツ)_/ ¯

  2. Perhaps Amanduh would like to offer her explanation for the “precipitous drop” is violent crime before she steps into this debate. Because I am quite certain this period was accompanied by some quite prominent and quite controversial crime and punisentertainment measures that she no doubt has loudly and publicly opposed.

  3. Blacks tend to be violent by nature – that mutation on the MAOA, again – and by culture.

  4. “Even without federal cooperation, some state and local governments could look as research like this and consider immediate solutions to address the geography of some cities in ways that might make them safer, friendlier and less conducive to gun violence. “

    Whut..?

  5. JuliaM – the only ‘immediate solution’ to ‘address the geography’ of a city I can think of would nuking it.

    A bit extreme, even for the Mentalist Left.

  6. Gun violence correlates with _urban poverty_. Redlining obviously contributed to making sure those living in such areas are not there on merit. Which is what’s wrong.

  7. It’s nice to know Amanda cares so much about coc, communities of colour that is.

  8. Tim, why do you encourage the racists among your commentators? Shame on you.

    I don’t expect you to agree with the conclusions in this piece, but it’s worth reading for the history.

  9. Despite making up just 13% of the population, blacks commit around half of all homicides in the United States.

    From 2011 to 2013, 38.5 per cent of people arrested for murder, manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault were black.

    Black males aged 15-34, who account for around 3% of the population, are responsible for the vast majority of these crimes.

    Despite being outnumbered by whites five to one, blacks commit eight times more crimes against whites than vice-versa, according to FBI statistics from 2007. A black male is 40 times as likely to assault a white person as the reverse.

    https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2015/crime-in-the-u.s.-2015

    Statistics can be bent and twisted in all sorts of ways, but those sorts of numbers can’t be ignored indefinitely, at least not in a civilized society.

  10. BiB – Civilisation is racist.

    Especially the Danny Kaye ft. The Andrews Sisters version.

  11. There is nothing “racist” about the practice widely known as “redlining.” Rather, it is just the practical application of
    various considerations that go into the making of real-estate-based (or mortgage-type) loans.

    Lenders (at least those who are interested in success) in their
    endeavors are especially prone to study (and accentuate in their considerations) two overridingly important factors: the
    record of the prospective buyer insofar as is concerned the repayment of loans (sans complications) AND the real prospect that the chunk of ground in question can be sold
    for about what has been loaned–should interruption of the payment schedule occur.

    It is simply a fact that significant geographical areas can be identified as those in which repayment is likely to be (or become) problematic AND that those areas just “happen” to be those in which major black populations occur. Whether an
    actual “red line” is drawn around those areas or not is immaterial.

    There are banks with black owners. Historically, they have
    “red-lined”–just like other banks interested in repayment.
    Additionally, consideration of repayment is not dependent on
    the record of the inhabitants insofar as are considered their loan obligations. Also must be considered in all real-estate
    loans is the likelihood that the property (AND THE GENERAL
    CONDITION OF OTHERS IN ITS VICINITY) will be kept to
    a certain level of utility and attractiveness–further points on which real estate may simply be removed from any practical consideration of “loanability.”

  12. Is Amanduh confusing cause and correlation on Redlining?

    If majority Black areas fulfilled all the criteria for loans etc and weren’t granted the same treatment as other areas, then you have a problem.

    If they differ (negatively) in those loan criteria and they get treated differently, well, that’s just BAU

  13. Despite being outnumbered by whites five to one, blacks commit eight times more crimes against whites than vice-versa…

    Statistics can be bent and twisted in all sorts of ways

    Quite so, as your use of “despite” demonstrates.

    Trump is racist for wanting to save black lives.

    I don’t think Trump is directly racist. But he gets accused of it because he tweets lies like this.

  14. Wasn’t one of the biggest causes of the financial crisis the precarious state of Fanny Mae and Freddy Mac?
    Caused in no small part by Clinton forcing them to lend to people without collateral, jobs or even money as this disadvantaged the black population?

  15. SJW, I posted the link so you could check out the figures yourself, without having to take my word for it.
    You haven’t addressed the fact that America, and other places would be much safer without young, black males.

  16. SJW – Indeed. Fact Check: young black men in America ONLY murder at a rate of about 10 times their population share. Checkmate, Drumpf!

    Thanks for sharing. <3

  17. It’s the white people’s fault – there are too many available victims.

    Paul, you quote only one of BiB’s points, and dance on a pedant’s pinhead to make your point.

    What about this:

    ‘Despite making up just 13% of the population, blacks commit around half of all homicides in the United States.’

    Is it racist to notice that? Or to say it? Is it a lie? Why did you not have a clever comment to make about that line?

    You live (I think?) in Cambridge. There isn’t a big murder rate in Cambridge. Do you ever stop to think what it might be like to live in South Side Chicago?

  18. Theophrastus, there’s a middle ground between believing that an eighteen-year-old black American male is intrinsically no more dangerous than a sixty-year-old female Rotarian (or indeed, an eighteen-year-old white American male ) and that it’s racist to notice that this isn’t true, and actually being a racist twat.

  19. BiB: you’ve missed my point. Both white-on-black and black-on-white crime numbers will be proportional to both the number of white people and the number of black people. Therefore the ratio of whites to blacks in the population is irrelevant to the ratio of w-o-b to b-o-w crime.

    __

    It’s regrettable that the USA has a history of importing Africans as slaves, destroying their family lives, social ties, and independence. It’s more regrettable that after slavery ended the USA spent another century discriminating strongly against the descendants of those slaves. It’s regrettable also that even after the Civil Rights Acts discrimination continued in various ways, including redlining and reverse redlining which made it difficult for the descendants of slaves to get accumulate wealth.

    It’s not surprising that the outcome should be that crime rates are higher among the descendants of slaves.

    Well, we can’t fix the past. Today, we need black people to foster responsible behaviour in their communities. And we need white people not to use the statistics to condemn people for the colour of their skin.

  20. SJW: “And we need white people not to use the statistics to condemn people for the colour of their skin.”

    Translation: “And we need white people to ignore the huge elephant in the room, throw out any kind of common-sense risk-based analysis in everything and just accept the consequences thereof without complaining, because … err… because… err… RACISTS!.”

  21. ‘Despite making up just 13% of the population, blacks commit around half of all homicides in the United States.’

    Is it racist to notice that? Or to say it? Is it a lie?

    No, no, and no, except that someone who didn’t want to make the statistic as stark as possible would write “47%” (calculated from the table in BiB’s link) rather than “around half”.

    If the racists here would keep their ugly opinions to themselves, you and I and anyone else could have a serious conversation about the issue. But they won’t, so we can’t. And Tim knows that.

  22. By the way, the statistics are based on cases where the identity of the perp is known, so the proportion of murders committed by blacks is even higher than 47%. The big cities where blacks commit lots of murders – Chicago, St Louis, Baltimore – have extremely low clearance rates for murders, so most of those murders never even get counted in murder-by-race statistics.

  23. @SJW – “Well, we can’t fix the past.”

    Nope but we sure can use it as an excuse.

    I honestly know nothing about the circumstances of my great grandfathers and grandmothers. As for anyone further back in my time-line? I could have ancestors who were made slaves by Barbary pirates. No idea. If I found out I had, I wouldn’t use it as a justification for selling drugs on street corners or shooting dead someone for dissing me.

  24. “JerryC

    By the way, the statistics are based on cases where the identity of the perp is known, so the proportion of murders committed by blacks is even higher than 47%. The big cities where blacks commit lots of murders – Chicago, St Louis, Baltimore – have extremely low clearance rates for murders, so most of those murders never even get counted in murder-by-race statistics.”

    I once saw a TV show where the murderer was white. White people outnumber black people in the US. If we extrapolate these facts out to assume, quite reasonably, that all unsolved murders were committed by white people, we can easily see that the tax gap is much bigger than the authorities have said.

  25. If ever there was anything keeping black Americans down, it is the constant refrain that The Racist Whiteman is to blame, which teaches young men that they are not responsible for their actions and worse, that there’s no way out for them.

    How many decades have the Democrats run Chicago? How much of their time and the taxpayers dollar have they spent bleating about racism? How much good has that done the black population? Well, I know the answer to the last one.

    SJW and his moronic self-righteous and largely lily-white ilk are not just part of the problem. They are the problem.

  26. but we sure can use it as an excuse

    That’s a strange thing to say. When commentators here point out that black people in the USA commit violent crimes at a disproportionate rate, I’m fairly sure they’re not arguing that having a dark complexion is an excuse for assaulting people.

    Similarly, when I say that poor people, particularly poor people who see themselves as having little to lose by getting a criminal record, commit more violent crime, that’s not an excuse for them, still less a justification. It’s an argument that the colour of a person’s skin might not be the right basis for understanding the statistics.

  27. Paul – you are in the throes of a terrible cognitive dissonance. You need to realise that the truth cannot be racist – obviously, racists can use the truth to make wider points, but that’s different.

    I believe myself that most racism – as expressed in speech – is precisely a reaction to dishonest ‘anti-racism’. If you cannot interrogate the fact above without trying to suggest that there is a vast difference between ‘47%’ and ‘around half’, and that the use of such a phrase is inspired by racism, then you are lost.

    I accept myself that ‘almost half’ would have been better – though we have thus forever retired the phrase ‘around half’ – but that is not the important point in that sentence.

  28. @SJW

    ‘Similarly, when I say that poor people, particularly poor people who see themselves as having little to lose by getting a criminal record, commit more violent crime, that’s not an excuse for them, still less a justification. It’s an argument that the colour of a person’s skin might not be the right basis for understanding the statistics.’

    There are more poor whites in the US than poor blacks. Do they commit murder (say) at the same rates? If not, why not? How about poor, first-generation Koreans, say?

    (I don’t know. I don’t think it’s simple, at all.)

  29. It’s an argument that the colour of a person’s skin might not be the right basis for understanding the statistics.

    Exactly, SJW.

    These racists are fixated on melanin levels. But high melanocity doesn’t cause criminality, low IQ and poor impulse control does.

  30. interested

    “…and actually being a racist twat.”

    The jokes were a clumsy attempt to wind up our resident prig, SJW. Such jokes have analogues in most cultures – as Canadians about indians – sorry, native peoples – or Norwegians about Lapps – sorry, Sami people. ‘Racist’ humour is universal. Laughter releases tension, and nothing should be off-limits when it comes to humour, IMO.

  31. I believe it was Arthur Ashe who said something along the lines of ‘the biggest problem facing the black man in America was the black man in America.’.

  32. I hate racism.

    Racism is crass, and crassness is for wops, dagos, and other swarthies.

  33. Theo – ok sorry. But in that case you take my point. I do really try to judge everyone as I find him, but I also believe that group characteristics exist and so I judge the group as I find it too. This causes conflict – though the former wins out when the evidence is there.

  34. SJW–You are sanctimonious, deceitful socialist bullshit on legs..

    Slavery nor Jim Crow couldn’t destroy the black family.

    But the handout scum of the welfare state managed the job. 70 years ago a slightly higher percentage of black couples were married than whites. Now billions of dollars later fatherless bastardy is near universal.

    The scum of the lefts handouts are nearly as deadly as their fucking labour camps. Indeed left-controlled black American hell-holes are labour camps–its just that the taxpayers outside are doing the labour and the inmates are being paid to have crime, degeneracy and violence as a career.

    If other posters have time listen to this interview with Boston’s Violence Guy–James LaFond.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FkoZ3qYSZUM

    And read his blog. There is much there for decent people both black and white.

    http://www.jameslafond.com/

    Nothing for scum like you tho’ SJW.

  35. Interested

    “I do really try to judge everyone as I find him, but I also believe that group characteristics exist and so I judge the group as I find it too.”

    Exactly. Well put.

    Stereotypes matter — without them, we couldn’t navigate the world — but we can and should also look at the individual.

    SJW would categorise me as a ‘racist’ because of my empirical judgements about blacks – viz that they tend to sink to the bottom of any society they end up in, that 10-20 x more blacks than whites possess a genetic mutation predisposing to extreme violence, that…etc etc.

    Yet I have an accountant of Nigerian descent among my friends, and an Indian engineer, and I voted for a Chinese immigrant (Tory) candidate in the last local elections. Unfortunately, a ‘family’ of negro ‘asylum’ seekers has been housed in an investment property just four doors away from where I live, so my patience is just a little tried at present….

  36. incidentally, are there any words that white folk can say but black folk can’t?

    “I like Nickelback.”

  37. Heh, just back from work to see that this thread has metastasized!
    My Dad is a racist. Comes from being German. He naturally thinks Germans are superior to everyone else, except maybe the Swiss.
    Yet despite his ingrained negative attitude to those of a swarthier complexion, I have never ever seen him treat anyone in anything other than an exemplary fashion.
    Most people tend to be like that. Natural preference to Kith and kin. Suspicion of outsiders etc.
    Some groups however deserve their reputation. The Somalis up the road have never worked, and never will. I’m surrounded by a sea of black single mothers, most on benefits with Mary a Dad to be seen and the stabby little buggers here in Brum tend to be of ethnic origin.
    You can’t deny the evidence of your own eyes.
    Unless you’re a lefty of course..

  38. Gosh darn, I did type nary, not Mary. But this here autocorrect thinks it can second guess me..

  39. “… a racit twat…”

    Hmm, reading down these comments I really have to wonder exactly what would you have to say before you were recognised is ed kn here as a racist twat.

    Any offers?

  40. “It’s regrettable that the USA has a history of importing Africans as slaves, destroying their family lives, social ties, and independence.”

    Thank you for your concern about ancient history. Do you also feel it’s regrettable that the Romans used slaves as gladiators?

  41. SJW is correct to say that American blacks have had severe disadvantages.

    But gang culture in, for example, Chicago is a massive problem, and it’s all a downward spiral.

    The Dems have done nothing, while Trump just make a difference.

    Endless whining about how we got here, structural racism, yada yada will achieve nothing. Partly because it will take so long to unwind completely, and while white people become less and less racist, more and more Chicago blacks will be getting sucked down.

    The fact is it would really really sting if Trump achieves something or anything in the inner cities.

  42. ‘The journal Social Science & Medicine’

    My Bible.

    ‘overall trends show a precipitous drop in crime over the past two decades or more’

    Coinciding with most states implementing “shall issue” concealed carry permit laws. Noticeably NOT in Chicago.

    ‘What they found was that areas of Philadelphia deemed “red zones” 80 years ago strongly correlate to areas that now have a high concentration of gun violence.’

    Travon shot Tyrone coz there was redlining there 80 years ago.

    Wait . . . what?

    In epidemiology, correlation alone is not enough. A plausible cause must be also be available to support the contention. There is NFW that what happened 80 years ago has a damn thing to do with why Travon shot Tyrone.

    2014, the last year for which I have data, there were 6,000 homicides by firearms discharge committed by blacks, 5,000 by all others (whites, hispanics, asians, cetera) in the USA.

  43. Large-scale racial mixing tends not to work. People gravitate to those most like themselves…and then ghettos become established…and then (often fed by guardianista whitey) a sense of victimhood emerges…and the rest is history…

  44. As expected and as SJW has been saying for much of the day, there really aren’t many genuine comments on here that Surreptitious Evil for example would regrd as racist.

    Oh dear

  45. It’s a pity because this article presents such a sitting duck of a legitimate targets. Instead the thread descends into… this.

  46. @sjw It is amazing how many people think they are doing blacks a favor by exempting them from standards that others are expected to meet.”- Thomas Sowell (black philosopher)

  47. and” Racism is not dead, but it is on life support; kept alive by politicians, race hustlers and people who get a sense of superiority by denouncing others as racists” again thomas sowell.

  48. Ironman

    I fail to see what is ‘racist’ about pointing out that blacks underperform in every society that they join, that average sub-saharan IQs of 70-85 are replicated in blacks in sarf London and Chicago, along with a dysfunctional ‘family’ structure that produces anti-social males, some of whom are pre-disposed to extreme violence by their genes.

    The question is not whether the above is even broadly true — because it is — but what we do about it.

  49. Rather interestingly the Evening Standard had an article about the increased violence amongst youths last week. It had interviewed an ex-game member who said that it had become bad when the Somalis and Ivorians (iirc.) turned up as immigrants. When arguments started with the inevitable “come on then. You ain’t that hard. What you gonna do?” instead of waving fists and throwing punches the Somalis would simply stab someone in the chest. Now we had given refuge to these kids and their response was to stab people if involved in a dispute.

    To me this proves two things. Firstly a propensity to violence in a small group can ruin a large area and force unpleasant changes on many people as London feels a much more violent place now. Secondly the SJW “just give them cuddles” approach is not going to work. Asylum or refuge status should create a massive sense of gratitude but in many cases instead it seems have done nothing but import violent and/or misogyny.

  50. Ironman,

    How would you know?

    Or are you just running the pathetic glee of your erroneous assumptions up and down and up and down until you burst forward in an excess of righteous endeavour?

  51. In 1993 there were 934 murders in Chicago, dipping below 500 in 2004 before starting to rise again with 2016 seeing 762.

    As Dave points out above, ‘Gun violence correlates with urban poverty.’

    The thing is, atmospheric lead poisoning correlates highly with both urban poverty and anti-social behaviour.

    Gun violence peaked in 93 just as a generation of people who were poisoned as children by the lead in petrol came to maturity.
    The peaks we are seeing now is due to a generation of children being poisoned by the lead released in the slum clearances of the late 90’s.

    Rick Nevin got it spot on in ‘The Answer is Lead Poisoning’

    This article thinks it is related to policing in the 90’s despite having the evidence before their eyes.
    http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/the_next_20/2016/09/is_chicago_s_ghastly_murder_rate_the_result_of_its_1990s_anti_gang_policies.html

    This one sees the outcomes but doesn’t pull the slum clearances into the picture.
    http://www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/The-312/January-2013/Lead-Violence-and-Society/

  52. @ SJW
    Poverty is *not* the cause of criminality (it *may*, just *may* be a contributing factor. Twenty-odd years ago I calculated that a single mother in the black ghetto in New York had more money (even on a PPP basis) than a bank manager in Albania supporting a wife and family. The crime rate among Albanian bank managers was, as far as I knew, ZERO. Crime rate in the New York ghetto very very non-zero.
    TEMPTATION to commit crime is, presumably, correlated with the increased spending power expected (partial correlation with absolute increase and partial correlation with relative increase) BUT morality due to upbringing is more important that absolute or relative povertyy in overcoming temptation.

  53. Moqifen mentions Thomas Sowell, the Black economist. TS looks at educational achievements and other measures and points out that black Americans in NY are in a far worse state after 50 years of the welfare state than they were after 100 years of slavery.

  54. The Comanche used to gut people alive and laugh while they did it. How much lead did they ingest?

  55. @ Dave
    Gun violence has zilch to do with urban poverty. It has *everything* to do with the abolition of capital punishment..Look at Jim Callaghan’s speech when he was dumped with the task of defending Woy Jenkins’ dishonest claims: he admitted that the data showed an increase in capital murders (not a one in a *billion* chance that this was a random fluctuation) and the death rate has soared since then.
    Urban poverty? So why weren’t there thousands of gun murders in the UK in the late-forties (when thousands of ex-army guns were easily available) and early-50s? Most people were poor and lots were very poor. Look at some facts! (Or is that forbidden by Momentum?)

  56. Asylum or refuge status should create a massive sense of gratitude

    It just makes them despise us. The mentality of savages means they’re either at our feet or at our throats.

    Send them all back.

  57. ‘Gun violence peaked in 93 just as a generation of people who were poisoned as children by the lead in petrol came to maturity.’

    Lead was in petrol for fifty fvcking years, genius.

  58. As I am already far too involved in a similar discussion, held at a higher level, on a sport’s site no less, I am limiting my response to one point.

    SJW,

    Your target audience will not even open the Atlantic link due to the title and the source. Furthermore, I don’t blame them. Simply throwing money at a problem does not solve said problem. What we really need are wealth creation knowledge transfers, not wealth transfers. The R word does prevent a lot of people from reading the article, even though it does contain useful information.

  59. “Racial prejudice is a terrible thing, Yossarian. It really is. It’s a terrible thing to treat a decent, loyal Indian like a nigger, kike, wop, or spic.”

    Chief White Halfoat, p. 44, Catch 22

    Ban this book

  60. The difference between a man and a dog is that if you help a dog it’s grateful. – Mark Twain

  61. MC: “SJW and his moronic self-righteous and largely lily-white ilk are not just part of the problem. They are the problem.”

    BINGO! Hence why they froth & whimper so much.

  62. SE

    How would I know. Your failure – I’m sure you would call it a decision – not to offer a single suggestion for a cmoment that could be considered racist on this blog. Fine if you wish to offer puerility, but don’t then think you still have a high horse to climb up onto.

    The absence of that single suggestion indicates to me that SJW got it absolutely right.

  63. I’m obviously missing something here.

    How can making a one-line gag about Mary’s baby not having a dad (presumably meaning the biblical Mary) be in any way considered racist?

    Do Jews have a large problem with absent fathers too?

  64. From the Salon article:

    “Federal redlining, as Alexis Madrigal of the Atlantic explained in a 2014 article, was a racially discriminatory housing policy created with the 1934 creation of Federal Housing Administration, which remained federal policy until 1968.”

    A policy outlawed in 1968 ( Fair Housing Act of 1968) is responsible for black violence today? Incredible that nothing at all has changed in the US in the intervening 50 years.

    Whenever non-whites do something bad, it seems it’s always white peoples fault.

  65. “Whenever non-whites do something bad, it seems it’s always white peoples fault.”

    The Left encourages personality disorder in minorities. The Left doesn’t love them; the Left wants them stirred up. Minorities are just their tools.

  66. Sowell clearly documents the rise and fall/disintegration of the black family, the downward spiral into fatherless families and the development of gang culture as a substitute for absent fathers. And it wasn’t slavery (or the aftermath) wot done it.

    Every minority (and not so minority) ethnic group in the States has suffered the indignities of prejudice. But…

    Asians (practically former outcasts) now outearn whiteys.

    When somebody shows me Sowell is wrong….

  67. “Asians (practically former outcasts) now out earn whiteys”

    Whitey is a particularly clever racist, he manages to keep the black man down by discriminating against him, keeping him in the ghetto on drugs and welfare, but covers his racist ways by allowing the Indians, Chinese and other South Asian ethnic groups to outperform even whitey. How evil and devious can you get????

  68. Now I am curious about the lead levels that can be found in US public housing projects. Because these are state owned and state tested I highly doubt I can trust the validity of the numbers. Could it be possible that state action is directly possible for increased black crime rates?

  69. ‘By 2012 it was evident that no safe blood lead threshold for the adverse effects of lead on
    children had been identified and the Center for Disease Control (CDC) currently uses a
    reference value of 5 μg/dL.’

    Junk science. Epidemiological crap.

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