But deeper shifts, on a global scale, also pose new challenges and possibilities. While a small but significant percentage of women have joined the professional and managerial elite, they have also pulled away from less skilled women in dramatic fashion, tripling the income gap between graduate and non-graduate women.
Some argue that this gap reduces the chance for cross-gender solidarity, instead offering ambitious young women a chance to join the elite through competitive and supposedly meritocratic educational systems. From this perspective, the relative lack of earning and public power of the majority of women can be seen not as the result of discrimination but of good old nature (women choosing to do less paid work), or a simple lack of personal or career oomph.
But for those who reject this analysis, what are the possibilities for reviving campaigns on more material questions? Several developments are encouraging. First, not all of the new feminism is concerned solely with issues of representation or sexualisation. The campaigning group UK Feminista has taken up the cause of the living wage. Young feminist journalists such as Laurie Penny and Rhiannon Lucy Cosslett write powerfully on class and care issues.
That is, having solved the feminist questions everyone must carry on the struggle on class grounds.