Finally, government advice you can use

Bahamas warns young black men to ‘exercise extreme caution’ when dealing with US police

Hmm.

Law professor says people can be stopped by police for ‘driving while black’ but criticises the advice saying it could make black men ‘paranoid’

Actually, around an American cop you want to be paranoid. I’m paranoid around American cops and I’m so whitebread it’s painful.

75 thoughts on “Finally, government advice you can use”

  1. The Inimitable Steve

    Yarp. All US badge n’ gun types are best avoided.

    Our police aren’t great either, as Andrew Mitchell discovered. But at least they probably won’t break into your house and shoot your dog.

  2. The Meissen Bison

    TIS: But at least they probably won’t break into your house and shoot your dog…

    …without carrying out a risk assessment beforehand.

  3. I’ve driven, flown & taken trains, plus been a pedestrian, in New York, Florida, Oklahoma, San Fransisco, Dallas….

    ….not once was i remotely concerned about the possibility a cop might shoot me.

  4. …without carrying out a risk assessment beforehand.

    Not so fast. Perhaps you might want to read up on the case of Tiffanie Hupp. Short story: she called in the cops an incident in which a relative was nearly run over; the cops tried to shoot the dog, and then tried to confiscate all the cell phone video. That’s because the cell-phone video showed the cop was lying on his police report.

    If you’re worried about the political slant of the Mint Press, you can try reason, which points out the cop implies it’s standard training for cops to shoot dogs:

    According to Photography Is Not a Crime (PINAC), Cook “testified that he was not afraid of the dog, but was following training that required him to kill all dogs that approach him, even if it was chained and wagging its tail as Buddy was doing in this case.”

    But nobody gives a crap about Tiffanie because she’s white.

  5. Ted S: “…but was following training that required him to kill all dogs…”

    And he could produce evidence such training actually existed, right?

    *crickets*

  6. Ted S, I find it rather indicative of the quality of the legal profession that her lawyer didn’t laugh it out of court. Or the judge make some comment.

    And yes, Tiffanie is white. But I’m thinking what we’d call a chav. And the Yanks probably ‘trailer trash’..?

  7. Mr Ecks, the sort of dogs that trailer trash and chavs have are more likely to be dangerous than those owned by middle class bankers and quantity surveyors.

    You might call this ‘prejudice’. I’d call it ‘survival instinct’.

  8. Paranoia will serve you well. I spent a couple of decades living in or regularly visiting Texas and learnt early on to place my hands on the dashboard whenever police pulled alongside. In plods defence, most everyone I knew carried a sizeable handgun beneath the driver’s seat. Police were the least of your problems.

  9. Ted S, I find it rather indicative of the quality of the legal profession that her lawyer didn’t laugh it out of court. Or the judge make some comment.

    Her first lawyer (from the public defender’s office) had a conflict of interest, being married to somebody in, I believe, the sheriff’s department.

    Judges are sickeningly deferential to cops, too.

  10. For example: a cop was actually sentenced to a year in prison for bribery and perjury. After two months, he claimed he was depressed (apparently they kept him out of the general population like they do with cops), and wanted to spend the rest of his sentence under house arrest.

    The judge agreed. Can you imagine a judge doing this with a non-cop?

  11. So somebody says I’m a chav which means my dog is more likely to need shooting.

    We all have no choice but to judge but –you know–some sort of evidence that someone means harm before the shooting starts might be an idea.

  12. Mr. Worstall’s advice is sound…

    One of many reasons I would never consider the open carry of a handgun here in Ohio – where it is perfectly legal to do so – is that I simply do not trust the police to respond appropriately to my doing so.

    The events in Dallas shouldn’t really shock anyone. They were both easily foreseeable and in every sense inevitable. What has been lost in all the racial angst is the what role the police themselves played in making Dallas happen.

    First: The decades long trend of the militarization of the nation’s police forces in terms of weapons. Police forces are far more heavily armed than in the past, and quite frankly, for the most part are armed with military grade weapons. As someone with a bit of knowledge about firearms, it seems to me that lots of cops are over-armed rather than under-armed. And as anyone who knows firearms will tell you, packing serious heat can affect the way you think and act… and often not for the better.

    Second: The decades long trend of the militarization of the nation’s police forces in terms of tactics. All too often standardized police tactics are adapted from military tactics. Those tactics involve the application of overwhelming – and potentially lethal – force in the event of coming into contact with a perceived threat. It should now be clear that large numbers of police view the civilian population as enemy combatants first and law-abiding citizens second. Based on events, it appears that use of such tactics needs to be re-examined and re-assessed. A long time ago a old cop told me this, and it rings true: The difference between a good cop and a bad cop is that a good cop walks into a volatile situation and defuses it; the bad cop walks into a volatile situation and turns it into a crisis. I think most police departments have lost sight of that truism.

    Third: U.S. police forces are incapable of reform. I attribute this to the fact that the police are unionized, and civil service rules make it nearly impossible to cull the incompetent and the corrupt. This has lead to the existence of huge police forces that are clearly riddled by corruption (think Chicago, San Francisco, L.A., Philadelphia, N.Y.C., Detroit, etc., etc., etc…). It has also lead to a dearth of truly competent police leadership: Those who are serious about reform do not attempt to do so because it is impossible to do so… And what you end up with are police chiefs who have become police chiefs for all the wrong reasons.

    Fourth: Police are terrible at building trust within the community. This is due, in no small part, because police (a) self-segregate, and (b) protect their own at all cost. The “blue wall of silence” is very real, and the bottom line is this: If you’re going to behave the same way a criminal organization behaves, some people are going to come to the conclusion that you are a criminal organization. Police forces want community involvement, but only on their terms… That’s never worked before, and it will not work now.

    At some point the police nationwide are going to have to grapple with the ugly fact that after treating large swaths of the civilian population as enemy combatants, some elements within the civilian population have decided they are going to behave the way they are being treated.

    The wages of sin is death.

  13. Another one caught. Polly Toynbee once referred to me in a column as a “pendant”. Which I took to be something precious, a jewel, which should be preserved near the heart. Alternatively, something close to a tit.

    Pendant and pendantry have now become the preferred spelling/in joke around here.

  14. Wages – plural.

    Decline the verb “to be”:

    3rd person plural: “they _are_”.

    I know it may be news in bits of our transatlantic former colony but not everything in the bible is true or even accurate.

  15. “The fact is that government has not dealt with acts of violence against black people. They have shot young black men with impunity and have got off. There is anger and angst.”

    Hagler is a liar. The facts are different. But the legacy press won’t fact check because controversy sells. They aren’t interested in the truth. Neither is Obama, who has his own agenda.

  16. Professor Cohn needs to buy a clue. Black people are already paranoid about being profiled because it happens all the time. Not discussing a problem is the best way of making sure it doesn’t get fixed.

    For those that are not afraid of American cops you should be. There is no way to know whether the cop approaching your vehicle is actually should be a cop. It is best to view every interaction as a robbery attempt.

    There are a few steps one can take to minimize the risk of being murdered. The first is not to be black. Depending on the area you should also not be Mexican, Native American, Indian, or any other group whose skin is too dark. For most Americans, and I am guessing virtually all of this blogs readers, this is not a problem. Second, one should be a woman. Women are perceived to be less of a threat. The next step is to not wear anything that is currently controversial. Currently Muslim appearing garb is the biggest risk. Hoodies, ball caps, and sunglasses should be avoided in general. The last preparation one can do, in a traffic stop, is to have your license, registration, and proof of insurance in an easily view-able location. As clearly visible locations in most vehicles are not good for document storage I recommend retrieving these items after you come to a stop but before the officer leaves their vehicle. Once the officer has left their vehicle you want to ensure that your, and your passenger’s, hands stay clearly visible for the entire incident. Do not have anything plastic, metal, black or silver in your hands. Wallets and cell phones are commonly claimed to be mistaken for weapons. Finally assume any personal property you have is going to be taken. Civil forfeiture laws mean anything can be legally reposed. Do not attempt to protest as the added attention with bring further legalized thefts.

    Compliance with steps one and two allows some leeway for mistake in later steps. It is still safer to follow all of the steps. If you are unable to comply with steps one and two then installation of a video monitoring system is a good idea. Be sure that the data is fed to an off-site storage area with backup. This does not prevent law enforcement abuses. It does provide a clear record of the incident. Stolen property is still unlikely to be returned, and of course you can’t have your life back, but the officer may face a disciplinary hearing.

  17. SE
    “The wages of sin is death” is an accurate quotation of Romans 6:23. Even modern translations of the Bible do not correct the grammar here. (No time to check, but the grammatical error might be in the original Greek.) So DtP was right textually; and you are right grammatically, but I can’t see the point in correcting every solecism in the Bible, Shakespeare, etc.

  18. The wages of sin is death was perfectly correct English at the time the King James Bible was written. Treating wages as singular now would be archaic and somewhat strange, unless quoting that line.

  19. MC
    I agree; but I’d add that there was no “perfectly correct” English when the Authorised Version was published, so the usage of “is” in that context was not incorrect rather than perfectly correct.

  20. “For those that are not afraid of American cops you should be.”

    Fortunately the nearest one to me is over 3,000 miles away. I’ve better things to worry about.

  21. Maybe if the Black population of the US were not habitually criminal and violent, they would not get shot so often.

  22. Off on weds for my family hols on the West coast of America and will be travelling around for 7 weeks as we do most years.In all my visits I’ve only had decent treatment from LEO over there, perhaps its because I’m not a criminal and know how to conduct myself around people….unlike 90% of young black men.

  23. Bloke in Costa Rica

    I’m with Dennis the Pendant. When I heard a bunch of cops had been shot I was not terribly surprised, nor was I terribly upset. That people are pushing back against the milice is a problem entirely of their own making. It used to be that the KKK was the paramilitary wing of the Democratic Party; now the job of keepin’ them Negroes in their place has been ceded to the fuzz. Obviously BLM are a bunch of scumbags, and the black population bears a huge burden of responsibility for its ills, but when you read of someone like Philando Castile who had been hit with a series of bullshit traffic citations that would never in a million years have been levied on a white guy, you start to see why there is a legitimate grievance. People are being mulcted to pay for their mulcting. Castile was sufficiently law-abiding to get a CCW permit, but that didn’t stop him getting shot by a trigger-happy dickhead. We’re now being told he was an armed robbery suspect, but that sounds like information management. It just means his car looked like one that might have been spotted near an earlier incident.

    The bottom line is yes, you do have to act deferentially around US cops lest they kill you, but it is scandalous that that is the case. It’s said that a measure of whether somewhere is a police state is how you react to the sight of a cop: with apprehension or reassurance. Here in CR, if I see a cop I know I can approach him and he’ll be friendly and helpful. The same applies in the UK, usually. Not so in the US.

  24. “Even modern translations of the Bible do not correct the grammar here. (No time to check, but the grammatical error might be in the original Greek.)”

    No, it’s in English. ‘Wages’ is an example of a ‘mass noun’, often used to describe continuously divisible substances – like flour, bread, rice, honey, wood, sand, concrete, and money. Most of them are singular in form and take singular verbs, but actually they aren’t. It’s quite common for words to switch category from singular to mass to plural and back again, as usages change.

    The most commonly discussed example is ‘data’, which used to be a plural, but is now a mass noun. People used to say “the data are…” but nowadays say “the data is …”. Both sides insist the other side is grammatically incorrect, but both are wrong. The word is in the form of a Latin plural, (in the same sort of way that ‘wages’ looks like a plural,) and was correctly used as such. But the usage changed, and now as a mass noun is properly treated as if singular.

    At the time the Bible was written, ‘wages’ was evidently a mass noun like ‘data’ is today. It has the same continuous divisibility characteristic as ‘money’. Today, it has evidently reverted to being a plural.

    Certainly when quoting the original form ought to be used. (You can sic it if you like.) When translating, there is an argument for using it in as close to the original sense as possible, so even modern translations often still treat it as a mass noun.

    It reminds me of when I had to look up the meaning of ‘beeves’ which kept getting mentioned in the Bible. Turns out it was the plural of ‘beef’, which had somehow turned from a singular to a mass noun in the interim. How would you translate this word today? ‘Cows’ isn’t correct, because ‘beeves’ specifically refers to a range of ruminants raised to become meat (meats?). And ‘beef’ looks strange when substituted into verses like “And threescore and twelve thousand beeves”. The best you can do is to accept that the past had a different language, and think of it as like quoting a foreign word and adapt as best you can. (Like, is the plural of ‘mot juste’ either ‘mot justes’ or ‘mots juste’?) It’s not modern English, it’s archaic English.

  25. Comments like Andy’s and Thud’s are why I try to post examples of police brutality/double standards that have nothing to do with the black community.

    One of the most annoying things about BLM is that it’s led to a lot of people in politics and the media ignoring that there’s a problem with the police in general, and saying you can only talk about it in terms of race. This leads to collectivist responses from people like Andy and Thud, and ignores the real problem which isn’t one of race.

    But a lot of the white politicians who would support BLM are people who would like a large state and need the police powers that go along with such a state.

  26. “Maybe if the Black population of the US were not habitually criminal and violent, they would not get shot so often.”

    Crime is more closely associated with poverty and lack of employable skills. Relatively speaking, they have more to gain and less to lose from resorting to crime than people who have more effective ways to earn a living. And high demand for drugs combined with restricted supply makes dealing a lucrative alternative to welfare alone. Because it’s not legal, you have to enforce your own contracts and territorial agreements, which therefore usually requires violence. Most blacks are killed by other blacks, as part of the gang turf wars.

    Back in the days of prohibition, it was the Italian gangsters who caused the same trouble – immigrants and hence poor, but also fairly close to being white. (‘Well tanned’, perhaps.) It’s nothing to do with skin colour. That’s just an easily distinguished characteristic of being raised poor.

    Maybe if there was no war on drugs to fund crime, and the state education system was not so crap, there would be less criminality and violence.

  27. Pingback: Quote of the Day – Counting Cats in Zanzibar

  28. “Crime is more closely associated with poverty and lack of employable skills.”

    So poor white/chinese/latino/whatever people carry out the same amount and types of crime as blacks? No they don’t.

    Quite true to say that most blacks are killed by other blacks, you point being?

    There is a huge problem with black criminality and violence and excuse making is not the answer.

    Wait for the cry of waaaaacisssttttttt.

  29. Niv

    “It’s not modern English, it’s archaic English.”

    Then why does it appear in nearly all modern translations of the Bible? Perhaps in the original NT Greek the word for ‘wages’ is a mass noun or there is a grammatical error (St Paul’s greek was poor).

  30. Go to Thomas Sowell for a view of how the current black underachievement/violence/excessive crime stats came to be and why other races don’t have the same problem.

    Doesn’t go down well with the American liberal but I’ve yet to see anyone argue him down.

    The police to military deviation is a separate issue but 40 years of dealing with a racial group that causes an out of proportion number of violent incidents won’t have helped.

  31. @ Theophrastus & NiV & …
    “wages” = remuneration in 21st-century management-speak.
    “The remuneration of sin is death” makes excellent sense..

  32. “Then why does it appear in nearly all modern translations of the Bible?”

    Possibly because the archaic mass noun gets closer to the original sense of the text.

    In what sense is “wages” multiple? How many wages? Three? Four? Six? And are *all* of these wages death, or only some of them?

    When your employer “pays you your wages”, how many “wages” do you actually get? The current usage doesn’t make much sense, and could lead to ambiguity/confusion.

    The verb “is” is being selected to agree with the singular nature of the right hand side of the equation (death), not the grammatically-plural-but-actually-not nature of the left hand side. The archaic usage makes more sense in context.

  33. Not a new problem, from 1998 2Pac Changes

    ‘I’m tired of bein’ poor and even worse I’m black.
    My stomach hurts, so I’m lookin’ for a purse to snatch.
    Cops give a damn about a negro? Pull the trigger, kill a nigga, he’s a hero.’

    ‘There’s war on the streets and the war in the Middle East.
    Instead of war on poverty,
    they got a war on drugs so the police can bother me.’

  34. “The police to military deviation is a separate issue but 40 years of dealing with a racial group that causes an out of proportion number of violent incidents won’t have helped.”

    This. The US police are pricks, but they’re pricks to everyone.

    The BLM response, which isn’t just kill cops, but generally kill white people is the response of ignorant scum.

    The black community is the US is fucked. The dominant culture is one that makes their state of underclass utterly permanent. And what help do they get from the Dems? Hillary saying white people need to change. Oh fuck off you harpy bitch…

    When will you liberals realise that it is the racism of low expectations and the welfare system has all but destroyed the black family. Someone else mentioned Thomas Sowell, a man of huge integrity. Why isn’t he a leading figure in the black community? Because they dont want to hear what he has to say as he would recommend self reliance and personal responsibility, but the majority of US blacks want to blame whitey and slavery and just be fuckups.

  35. Looking at a ‘community’ is not looking at a specific group. Your link is therefore not really all that useful.

    Waaaaaaasssicccctttttt. Sorry the 1980’s insults don’t work anymore, people are not buying what you are selling.

    Yes Thomas Sowell is very good.

  36. “When will you liberals realise that it is the racism of low expectations and the welfare system has all but destroyed the black family.”

    Yes. Agreed. But I think the same thing applies to the whites trapped in the welfare culture, as well.

    There’s nothing anybody can do about being black, but there’s a lot that can be done about culture. Misdiagnosing the problem as race rather than culture resists solution.

  37. As far as I can see, there is no verb in the original Greek (Westcott & Hort edition). That’s quite possible, as in Russian for instance.

  38. It seems to me that when you’ve solved the problem of the US police shooting people in general, then you can worry about the relative shooting rates of blacks and whites and take further action if needed. But starting out making this a racial problem is arse about face. Its a ‘Stop shooting people you out of control scumbags’ problem first and foremost.

  39. BiCR, it does appear from recent info that Philando Castile was NOT stopped for a traffic violation, but because he closely resembled a suspect (and the female in the car resembled the co-offender) for a recent armed robbery at a nearby (3 blocks away) convenience store. And the car fitted the description in general as well. Police officers in car audio recordings verify that the stop was for ID, NOT for a broken rear light.

    Video also shows what is purported to be a pistol in PC’s lap, not sure that I can ID that myself from the video.

    Further, PC did NOT have a concealed carry permit as far as is known, one was not issued by his local sheriff who would be the obvious person to grant one. He could have been given a CCP by another authority but not one that is yet known.

    There is a powerful narrative being spread and accepted, the actual truth *may* be different.

  40. are not the police throughout the western world becoming para military political enforcers.
    And riot police are becoming more visible than in yesteryear.

  41. Further, PC did NOT have a concealed carry permit as far as is known, one was not issued by his local sheriff who would be the obvious person to grant one.

    Minnesota does not require a concealed carry permit to open carry, it requires a permit to carry. That is a different beast. If Castile was in violation of any law, it was the Peaceable Journey law: Any legally possessed gun may be transported in a motor vehicle, provided it is unloaded and cased. From what I have read, the firearm Castile had was not cased.

    In any event, Castile was shot dead by the police before he could either establish his identity or whether he had the proper permit for carrying the firearm. That sort of renders any discussion of whether Castile had the proper permit meaningless.

    Castile wasn’t shot because he lacked a permit to carry. He was shot because badly trained policemen botched a routine traffic stop. And before you trot out the nearby convenience store robber trope, please note that standard police procedure when dealing with the occupants in a vehicle who are suspected of serious criminal activity (such as robbery) is to execute a felony stop. The police didn’t do that… They executed a routine traffic stop. Either the police didn’t believe Castile was the suspect in the robbery, or they were so badly trained they failed to choose to execute the appropriate (per standard procedure) felony stop procedure.

    The actual truth of the Castile case is simple: Two badly and/or under-trained cops botched a traffic stop and shot an innocent civilian dead because they panicked and then decided to shoot first and ask questions later. End of discussion.

  42. I was wondering when the convenience store robbery would come up.

    One, obviously biased, site had the images side by side. The first thing I noticed is that the robber only had a goatee 4 days before Castile was shot. The hairline was also markedly different. Since there is a possibility Mr Castile’s hair grew extremely quickly this isn’t proof that it wasn’t the same man. If he was still alive we could test the speed at which his hair grows and most likely eliminate him as a suspect.

    Since the beard isn’t enough to make a true judgement I started looking at other facial features. The robber wore a cap and sunglasses which obscured the eyes and nose. Mr Castile’s mouth was distorted due to the fact that he was dying. Were are also to see the robber’s right ear and Mr Castile’s left ear(Ms Reynolds’s facebook video is a mirror image and Mr Castile was driving). These are noticeably different but unfortunately it is not the same ear. It is possibly, though rare for a person to have one attached and one detached earlobe. I can not say for certain, based on the linked facebook photos of Mr Castile, the the left ear is detached.

    The ‘gun’ in Ms Reynolds’s video looks far more like a wallet with a receipt sticking out. If it is the gun used in the robbery where is that noticeably long barrel hidden? This image is the entire justification for the claim that a gun was on Mr Castile’s left thigh.

    Based on the, admittedly limited, video evidence I think the chances of Mr Castile being the robber are nearly zero. The only thing I can say for certain is that Conservative Treehouse is pandering to their readers.

    I should note that his article has seen major revisions since I saw it yesterday. The article claimed that Ms Reynolds was the second robber despite their supporting link clearly stating both suspects were male. Multiple paragraphs about the ‘significance’ of Ms Reynolds holding a pack of Newports were removed. I am certain multiple other changes have been made. If I had known this news outlet changed existing stories this drastically I would have saved an image.

  43. Surr Evil: On liturgical matters, that’s what being a voting member of General Synod does to you.

    You do surprise me; given your disdain for the Bible, you could be an archbishop.

  44. NiV
    “When will you liberals realise that it is the racism of low expectations and the welfare system has all but destroyed the black family.”

    Yes. Agreed. But I think the same thing applies to the whites trapped in the welfare culture, as well.

    Yes, but with one fundamental difference.

    The absence of father figures in urban black American ‘families’, where there are frequently several children by different fathers has, among other factors, led to a gang culture unknown among whites (or any other disadvantaged racially identifiable group).

    This is compounded by low expectations and racial favouritism which frequently has exactly the opposite effect of that intended (again see Sowell on diversity policies on university entrance lowering the results of black people).

    As Sowell (fortunately for all, a black man himself), points out, the black family was fine and getting better until the 60’s. The welfare state, understood as the over-arching parent who spoils its little children as opposed to what many feel it should be; a support net for those who are unable to make their own way in the world (and that cannot be 35% of the population) will provide us with plenty of research opportunities in the decades to come.

    This is nothing to do with slavery nor institutional racism in the origin of the problem.

    I suspect we will finally reach the conclusion that social engineering of a leftist, buenista hue will have a lot to answer for.

    This problem is independent of (but now entwined with) the policing problem in the States.

  45. bilbaoboy: “As Sowell (fortunately for all, a black man himself), points out…”

    Not an ‘authentic’ one, according to the SJWs…

  46. “The absence of father figures in urban black American ‘families’, where there are frequently several children by different fathers has, among other factors, led to a gang culture unknown among whites (or any other disadvantaged racially identifiable group).”

    Criminal gangs are criminal gangs, whatever their skin colour. They’re all the same.

  47. Criminal gangs are criminal gangs, whatever their skin colour. They’re all the same.

    Yup

    In Spain (Barcelona & Madrid) they are latin gangs. Coming to the States too.

    But the absolute number of gangs, how, why and when they developed is another matter.

    From Heather MacDonald:
    http://www.city-journal.org/html/chicago-brink-14605.html

    Social breakdown lies behind Chicago’s historically high levels of violence. Fatherlessness in the city’s black community is at a cataclysmic level—close to 80 percent of children are born to single mothers in high-crime areas. Illegitimacy is catching up fast among Hispanics, as well. Gangs have stepped in where fathers are absent. A 2012 gang audit documented 59 active street gangs with 625 factions, some controlling a single block. Schools in gang territories go on high alert at dismissal time to fend off violence……

    And in the real data on Black Lives Matter, cos ALL lives matter:
    https://pjmedia.com/instapundit/238352/

    Then go to Sowell for some sort of historical analysis.

    This hasn’t happened with asians, many of whom arrived with one hand in front and one hand behind (as we say in Spain), but have certainly seized the ‘American dream’.

    Why?

    There are answers, unfortunately they don’t fit the narrative.

  48. SJW

    All deaths like this are tragic and shouldn’t happen.

    But for some strange reason, I feel the daughter was not at the forefront of the mother or ‘father’s’ mind on a daily basis, nor are either of them saints.

    No reason to kill somebody, of course.

    But just maybe it wasn’t a simple, ‘hey I got a chance to kill a nigga with no comeback’.

    Already, for those that want to go beyond twitter, the narrative is falling quite spectacularly apart.

    Let’s wait and see what the enquiry can come up with with regard to the father, the policeman, why he was stopped, the behaviour of both and why this ended this way.

    If the policeman is guilty of what is being claimed, then punish away. I would agree totally.

    And if not?

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