Independent Bookstores Stage a Comeback. While pressure from Amazon forced Borders out of business in 2011, indie bookstores staged an unexpected comeback. Between 2009 and 2015, the American Bookseller Association reported a 35% growth in the number of independent booksellers, from 1,651 stores to 2,227.
Borders was a direct competitor to the Indie bookstore. Amazon is a substitute for.
The removal of some 700 (approx, Borders plus other brands) direct competitors has a different effect than the continued expansion of a substitute.
Gee, ya think?
Ford and GM sell cars in Austin TX (only they two). Austin builds a metro. GM remained bankrupt. Does Ford sell more or fewer cars in Austin TX?
Agreed, could go either way but we’d not be surprised if more, would we?